25Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the leading causes of disability and death in older age. With the increase in average life expectancy, it is important to understand how lifestyle factors can help to reduce our risk of chronic disease and maintain optimal health. So, what changes to our diet and nutrition can help to improve our life expectancy?

The ageing population
In Europe, ageing is one of the greatest social and economic challenges of the 21st century. The World Health Organisation (WHO) forecasts that the proportion of people aged 65 and older will increase from 14% in 2010 to 25% in 2050, with a particularly rapid increase in numbers of over-80s. People are generally living longer, but quality of life in later years can vary greatly. (1). Regardless of their socioeconomic group, health in old age should be improved to reduce the risk of social isolation and poverty.

Fruit and vegetables for health
In recent decades, scientific researchers have looked to the diet in order to prevent the risk of CVD and cancer. Fruits and vegetables have been strongly suggested as the key components to maintain a healthy heart. An increasing number of scientific studies have provided evidence that consumption of a diet rich in selected foods such as fresh fruit and vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of heart diseases including coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD, stroke, cancer, and other chronic diseases. The reported beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables on heart health may be attributed to many of their constituents, including vitamin C and E, potassium and folate. Other components such as dietary fibres and carotenoids (found in green leafy vegetables, tomatoes and carrots) are recommended as some of the best candidates for a healthy heart.

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Woman styling her hair with a curler - isolated white background

From face yoga to tastefully-applied glitter, I picked up many a cool trick backstage at Fashion Week. But as far as day-to-day practicality goes, what really struck me was how easy it is to use a double-barrel curling iron—and why have I never tried one before? True life: I'm now obsessed with the cool-girl waves it yields.

The thing is, I'd always written it off as a "pro" tool because in my mind, two prongs = twice as much trouble. It had taken me long enough to master a normal curling iron, so why complicate things? But then I saw hairstylist Kevin Ryan wielding one backstage at Tibi Fall 2016 and I was FASCINATED as I watched him give each model the most natural-looking, rock 'n' roll-worthy bends I'd ever seen in a matter of minutes. All he did was wrap pieces of the hair—from the midshafts to the ends—around one or both of the barrels in a figure-eight motion at random, for 10 to 15 seconds.

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23In recent decades reproductive and developmental problems have become more prevalent—for example, data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that male reproductive problems, including undescended testicles and hypospadias, doubled between 1970 and 1993. Environmental chemicals are strongly suspected to be contributing factors. Several recent reports highlight the presence of low-level concentrations of potential reproductive or developmental toxicants, particularly phthalates, in cosmetics and personal care products. A key question is whether these exposures are significant enough to cause harm.

In June 2004, Environment California issued Growing Up Toxic: Chemical Exposures and Increases in Developmental Diseases, which details chemicals found in consumer products and their potential health impacts. Other reports released around the same time by the Environmental Working Group (Skin Deep: A Safety Assessment of Ingredients in Personal Care Products) and Friends of the Earth (Shop Till You Drop? Survey of High Street Retailers on Risky Chemicals in Products 2003–2004) support Environment California’s publication.

According to these three reports, makeup, shampoo, skin lotion, nail polish, and other personal care products contain chemical ingredients that lack safety data. Moreover, some of these chemicals have been linked in animal studies to male genital birth defects, decreased sperm counts, and altered pregnancy outcomes. There is no definitive evidence for the same effects in humans, but widespread exposure, primarily to phthalates, has been shown to occur.

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22Supermodel Rosie Huntington-Whiteley is in the business of looking good — and diet is at least half the battle. She recently revealed her secret to eating well: She's been following the dietary guidelines of the London-based naturopathic doctor Nigma Talib, who just released a new book, Younger Skin Starts in the Gut.

While the model's precise plan is ambiguous when it comes to serving sizes and the carb-fat-protein breakdown, the diet forbids dairy, gluten, sugar, alcohol, — and probably joy. (Because what else is there to live for?!)

"It's been really tough," Rosie admitted to E! News. "I miss a glass of wine, I miss my cheese plates, and I miss my croissants. But interestingly you can still eat so beautifully and so wholesome and you can really be still so satisfied through healthier choices. It's just switching your mindset a little bit and it takes a couple of weeks to kind of adjust."

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21Botulinum toxin injection therapy (also known as "BOTOX therapy" or onabotulinumtoxinA) is used to treat dystonia - neuromuscular disorder that produces involuntary muscle contractions, or spasm - that affects muscles that control movement in the eyes, neck, face, limbs, voice box, or the smooth muscle in the bladder. The goal of the therapy is to reduce muscle spasm and pain.

In October 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved BOTOX injections to treat chronic migraines in adults who experience headaches on 14 or more days each month. This treatment involves multiple injections in the head and neck, administered every 12 weeks.

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a bacterium that causes food poisoning (botulism). There are seven known types of C. botulinum toxin, but only types A; (BOTOX Cosmetic) and B (Myobloc) are used as medical treatments.

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